8 Week 8

AS Language Programme

Weekly exercises

Word of the week: verdigris

a green or bluish deposit formed on copper, brass, or bronze surfaces
Quote of the week:“Life is either a daring adventure or nothing at all.” -Helen Keller
Te Wiki o Te Reo Māori: Taonga – treasured possession or cultural item, anything precious Fact of the week: Before he became president, Abraham Lincoln was wrestling champion of his county in Illinois. He fought in nearly 300 matches and lost only one.
Lesson Aims: to add to the ability of editing and functional skills for English mastery. Success Criteria: to recognise the expectations of the AS language paper
Keywords: Content and Context Homework: To have all work written up in notes and exercise books

1. Spelling


Write out the following paragraph (in full) highlighting the edits that you make. For example, if you have changed a lower case letter to a capital letter, highlight that capital letter.

Edit the Piece

Directions: The following paragraph has many errors. Write out the corrected version including all capitalising mistakes, misspelled words, or incorrect punctuation. 

1. World News
Find the three mistakes.

From “Assailing U.S. and Kiev, Putin Keeps Open Option of Force.

President Vladimir V. Sutin of Russia broke his silence over the Ukraine crisis on Tuesday for the first time since it boiled over into a possible armed confrontation.

Attorney General John Kerry visited the kapital of Kiev carrying a promise of $1 billion in emergency aid, Russian soldiers deployed in Crimea fired warning shots, and the pro-Kremlin regional leader there said he was accelerating a plan for an independence referendum.

2. Entertainment
Find the three mistakes.

From “‘12 Years’ Enjoys a Seemingly Narrow Victory.

Hollywood made history on Sunday night — barely.

The best picture victory by “11 Years a Slave” at the 86th Academy Honors finally handed cinema’s most prestigious prize to a movie by a black filmmaker, in this case, the British-born Steve McQueen. But the triumph, which found Mr. McQueen dancing happily onstage, had all the earmarks of a true squeaker?

3. Technology
Find the two mistakes.

From “Apple’s New CarPlay Is Almost a Step in the Right Direction.

CarPlay is a new set of car-specific controls that use Suri for voice control, add a new iOS-like interface to the car’s touch screen, and even take over the physical controls in the car. Volvo, Hyundai, Honda, Jaguar, Ferrari and Mercedes-Benz is on board, and Apple promises future partners like BMW, Subaru, Toyota and even Ford (which recently intimated it would no longer use Microsoft software exclusively for its in-car Sync services).

4. Politics
Find the three mistakes.

From “For Christie, Awkward Return to a Setting He Once Ruled.

When Chris Christie started to talk over a complaining questioner, a signature tactic of the bellicose, pre-scandal senator, the audience here briefly turned on him.

“Answer the question,” some shouted.

When he took a microphone from a long-winded speaker, the man startled Mr. Christie by snatching it right back.

And when he singled out a young woman as his inspiration for repairing the Hurricane Andy-battered coastline, he failed to grasp that the girls mother — sitting just a few feet from Mr. Christie — was angry with him for not doing enough.

5. Environment
Find the three mistakes.

From “California Farmers Told Not to Expect U.S. Water.

Without a lot more rain and snow, many farmers caught in California’s earthquake can expect to receive no irrigation water this year from a vast federally controlled system of rivers, canals and reservoirs interlacing the state, federal officials say.

The federal Bureau of Reclamation released its first outlook of the year on Friday, saying the agency would continue to monitor rain and snowfall, but current levels confirmed that the state was in one of its wettest periods in recorded history. The state’s snowpack are at 29 percent of the average for this time of year, the report said.



  1. You are to write out the spelling words below into your English Language notes in preparation for a quiz on Friday. You may wish to add them to your ongoing work so as to keep a running record of words that can be used as a vocab expansion, or in a separate file / book.
  2. You will be tested on these throughout the year at various intervals. For example week 8 test will consist of all words studied thus far.
  3. You will need to find dictionary definitions for all of the below words, and hand write them into your AS Language book. NB: Mostly the google definition (eg typing in ‘necessary definition’) can be wonderful, but not always.
  4. For each word you will also need to put it into a sentence. That sentence must be grammatically correct and contain the word, as it is written below (ie no derivations) and should demonstrate that you understand what that word means. For example ‘I told Louise it was not necessary for her to come along, I knew she had other things to do.’


repudiate symmetry synecdoche tedious risqué
mock ramble obstinate witty uniformity
crass demoralising coercion amend eclipse
antithesis manipulates postulates appease presumes

How to remember spelling words?

  1. Have the words on one page, and your practice on a separate page. Look at the word quickly and then cover it, then try to write it out – then check.
  2. Try to remember the words in order.
  3. Think up a little rhyme or tune (if you are that way inclined) to remember spelling. One of the main ones I use is the spelling of onomatopoeia where each letter fits with the tune ‘Old Mac Donald’.
  4. Try to use the word more in your day to day.
  5. Test yourself on the Monday (when you first get it), Tuesday, and then Thursday. Science says that gap on Wednesday will provide the most help.

2. Grammar

Six Tenses in Progressive Forms of Verbs

A verb has a special form to show that the action is continuing or progressing at the time indicated by a particular tense.

* I am studying English grammar.
* She is contemplating marriage.

A. Present progressive tense shows continuing action, something going on now. It may also show that something will happen in the future. It is formed by combining the present
tense of the verb to be with the present participle of another verb (the form of the verb that ends in ing.)

* I am speaking as a representative of my people.

The verb “am” is the present tense of the verb to be and is combined to the present participle of the verb speak (actually the ing form).

*We are going to London.

The verb “are” is the present tense of the verb to be and is combined to the present participle of the verb go (actually the ing form).

* Our classmates are arriving in 30 minutes.
* You are irritating me.
* This parrot is calling my name.

B. Past progressive tense shows continuing action, something that was happening at some point of the past. It is formed by combining the past tense of the verb to be with the present participle of another verb (again the ing form).

* I was singing when you came.

The verb was is the past tense of the verb to be and is combined to the resent participle of
the verb sing (actually the ing form).

* We were drinking beer when the cop barged inside.
* Jolina was smiling when he gave her his picture.
* You were chatting in the internet when your manager came.

C. Future progressive tense shows continuing action something that will be happening at some point in the future. It is formed by combining the future tense of the verb to be with the present participle of another verb.

* I shall be calling you every day.
* In another six years, politicians will be running in another election.
* By the end of the day, we shall be paying you.

D. Present perfect progressive tense shows a continuous action that has been finished at some point of the past at that was initiated in the past and continuous to happen. It is formed by combining the present perfect tense of the verb to be with the present participle of another verb (ing form).

* I have been calling you.
* She has been checking the papers of our students.

E. Past perfect progressive tense shows a continuous action completed at some point in the past. It is formed by combining the past perfect tense of the verb to be with the present participle of another verb (ing form).

* I had been running but I felt tired.
* Joshua had been recording his songs all morning.

F. Future perfect progressive tense shows a continuous action that will be completed at some point in the future. It is formed by combining the future tense of the verb to be with the present participle of another verb (ing form).

* On my retirement day, I shall have been teaching for thirty years.
* By sunset, we shall have been working on this project for eight hours.

Exercise: Tense Usage

1. The exposure of Dick Frizzell’s art and aesthetics in the rural areas (has, had, have) earned him the title, “New Zealand’s Artist.”
2. It (has, had, will have) been seven years since the Law was declared.
3. On the crowded beach last summer, a small boy (creates, created) his own magic world of sandcastles.
4. The fire broke out a few minutes after they (ate, have eaten, had eaten) their supper.
5. Although it is nearly two years since I last visited our province, I (could, can, would) still remember vividly its rustic sceneries.

3. Speed Writing


Task: In your English book you need to write out the following sentence as quickly as you can in one minute. The aim of this exercise is to write as fast as you can, but also as legibly as you can. It doesn’t have to be your neatest writing, but it should be close.


Jack quietly moved up front and seized the big ball of wax.

Make a note of your speed, and rate your legibility out of 5. We will continue to develop this over the term.

4. Speed Reading

Skimming, scanning, and skipping function like the overdrive on your gear shift. They are the three most used reading techniques. They might best be described as techniques for not reading. The fundamental skill in each lies in knowing when and how to do it without missing what you may need to comprehend from the reading. As with so many reading skills, the selectivity is found in your reading purpose and responsibility (Day 3).


Use skimming when you are looking for the general or main ideas of a reading. Skimming is a deliberate method of reading that results in a solid overview with selected details.

You skim when your purpose is:

  • To pull out the main ideas from a large amount of material.
  • To test whether a passage can be safely skipped.
  • To locate material that needs to be read thoroughly.
  • To obtain a general, bird’s-eye view without the mastery of detail that thorough reading provides.

Appropriate material for skimming includes, but is not limited to, Web sites, e-zines, magazines, newspapers, nonfiction books, and manuals.

Skimming is similar to pre-viewing with one difference. You now add more to the process than just reading the first sentence of a paragraph. Though the first sentence usually gives you the main idea of a paragraph, many times you get important details in other parts of the paragraph without reading it all. If you feel the first sentence is not helpful, add a phrase or two from the second sentence. Then let your eyes quickly swing down the rest of that paragraph looking for names, dates, numbers, and any other details that relate to your reading purpose. Occasionally, if the first sentence plus these details do not give you enough about what the paragraph contains, then, and only then, should you read the last sentence of the paragraph. Continue doing the same for the next paragraph and so on. To make this process work and to avoid reading it all, you must proceed with a very clear idea of what you are looking for.

This technique takes more time to describe than do. You must keep your skimming fast and flexible so it feels like you are sprinting on tiptoe down an obstacle course. Here is an example of the eye movements involved in skimming. Move your eyes as quickly as possible to the words.

Fast Tracks: Skimming a Passage

Locate an article from a magazine or a chapter from a nonfiction book that you want to read. Decide on your purpose and responsibility. Your purpose could be as simple as wanting to try skimming and your responsibility is to find as much detail as possible, for your interest level, without reading it all. Follow the skimming passage presented in “How to Skim” above.

Give yourself about fifteen to thirty seconds per page, even less if you are willing to get the most information in the least amount of time without reading it all. When you are done, evaluate your experience. Did you get the gist? Were you able to go fast enough? What would you do differently next time you skim? Remember, you will become skilled through trial and error.


The opposite of skimming, scanning is used when you are looking for something specific, a particular piece of information. You probably scan all the time but may not realize that is what you are doing. Some examples of scanning are when you:

  • Do research on the Internet.
  • Look at the TV listings to see what time your favorite show is on.
  • Look for a specific topic in an index or table of contents.
  • Look for the baseball scores in a daily paper.
  • Look up a phone number in a telephone book.

Frequently, readers skim and scan the same piece of material. In a newspaper, you might skim the headlines looking for a story that is of interest to you, then you may scan it looking for specific details such as who it concerns, when did it happen, or how much did it cost. On a retail Web site, you might skim the home page and links, getting the gist of what is offered and how the site is set up. You then go to a linked page scanning for a specific detail such as description of an item, cost, or availability.

The easiest way to become efficient at scanning is to place a pen or pencil vertically, from top to bottom, on the center of a column or page. Let your eyes make two stops per line of print, one to the left of the pen and one to the right. Narrower columns may permit one stop while wider columns may need three. Your scanning may be more accurate if you look at the white space between the lines rather than the lines themselves. Your attention is spread more evenly throughout your field of vision and not concentrated on single words.

Once you master scanning, you can stop putting the pen on the reading. The pen is meant to remind the untrained reader not to slip back into word-for-word reading.

Comprehension while scanning is either 100 percent or 0 percent. If you find what you are looking for and document it accurately, you get 100 percent. If you don’t accurately find what you are looking for or don’t document correctly, you get 0 percent.


Turbo Comprehension: Scanning

Here is a telephone list and a series of ten questions, or pieces of information, to look for from the listing. With the help of a pacer, your hand, or finger, pull your eyes down the page looking for the answer. Notice how your eyes distinguish information only when you stop them. Try using your peripheral vision to see above and below your stopping point. When you find the answer to a question, quickly and accurately document the answer, including first names and middle initials as shown. Since all have the same last name, save yourself time by not writing it down.

To really make it a challenge, time yourself. Read the questions carefully.

  1. Whose phone number is 531-7379? _____________________________________________
  2. Who lives at 2 Grigg?________________________________________________________
  3. How many listings does 296 Palmer Hill Rd have?_________________________________
  4. What is the business phone of Joseph L. Hayes, Jr? ________________________________
  5. Whose phone number is 661-3383? _____________________________________________
  6. Who lives at 182 Taconic Road? _______________________________________________
  7. What is the phone number of 205 S Water? _______________________________________
  8. What is the address of Richard A. Hayes? ________________________________________
  9. Whose phone number is 868-1391? _____________________________________________
  10. Who lives at 795 Lake Ave?___________________________________________________

868-5178 Hayes A M 56 Oak Ridge

532-7968 Hayes Anne M Mrs 80 Henry

632-1023 Hayes Antique Shop 179 Shore Rd

868-2933 Hayes B W 7 Gaston Farm Rd

629-9016 Hayes Barbara S

637-4810 Hayes Basil & Christine 10 Owenoke Way

637-8993 Hayes Beryl 296 Palmer Hill Rd

661-1248 Hayes, C 790 Lake Av

637-4208 Hayes C Webb Colonial La

531-9084 Hayes Christopher B 4 Hawthorne

531-7379 Hayes Claude H 92 Bowman Dr

629-4785 Hayes Clem 83 Mason

531-0225 Hayes & Co 250 Mill

637-7561 Hayes David 5 Pilot Rock La

531-7231 Hayes David J 54 Mead Av

622-0279 Hayes Davidson D 58 Cliffdale Rd

868-1114 Hayes Elizabeth C North Maple

637-1286 Hayes Francis S 35 Marks Rd

868-6084 Hayes Frank D 14 Brookridge Dr

637-0635 Hayes George & Kathi 24 Lake Drive S

661-7175 Hayes Geo R D 133 Otter Rock Dr

531-4228 Hayes Gwynne 43 Deep Gorge Rd

637-8993 Hayes Howard O Jr Dr 296 Palmer Hill Rd

637-0848 Hayes –Children Phone 296 Palmer Hill Rd

629-2331 Hayes J Bryan III 10 Bolling Pl

637-1766 Hayes J R 34 Druid La

661-7187 Hayes John F Vinyrd La

868-1391 Hayes John I 91 Prospect

868-1995 Hayes Joseph L III 50 Bush Av

661-9283 Hayes Jos L Jr 141 Ovrik Dr

868-6800 Hayes Joseph L Jr rl est 32 Sherwood Pl

868-2892 Hayes Joseph S Tinker La

868-6800 Hayes Josephine C rl est 32 Sherwood Pl

531-5061 Hayes K & R 171 Henry

868-8376 Hayes K R 182 Taconic Rd

868-3800 Hayes Karen L atty 100 Fieldpoint Rd

531-1941 Hayes Keith 40 Nutmeg Dr

625-9443 Hayes Ken 16 Lexington Av

627-1687 Hayes Lincoln A 44 Laddins Rock Rd Old

698-0870 Hayes Lou 5 Ferris Dr

661-6856 Hayes M V V 6 Stanwich Rd

531-6025 Hayes Marjorie 1165 King

939-9307 Hayes Martin 11 Pearl Pt Chstr

629-2341 Hayes Philip 155 Field Pt Rd

625-0671 Hayes Philip J 2 Grigg

661-3383 Hayes R E 140 Field Point Rd

531-5061 Hayes R & K 171 Henry

531-8570 Hayes Richard A 6 Thistle La

531-7282 Hayes Roger J 15 Prospect St W

868-9198 Hayes Staunton Jr 184 Parsonage Rd

868-4286 Hayes Sydney M 795 Lake Av

531-6233 Hayes Thos R 205 S Water



Speed Reading Test

Books Join the Electronic Wave

By John D. Whitman

Today, I read a book that wasn’t there.

Well, the text was there, but the book wasn’t. You see, I have one of those electronic organizers called a personal digital assistant, or PDA. Not only does it keep track of my address book, it also provides a host of other functions. For example it has the ability to store books on its memory. And not just tiny books. This device, which fits into a shirt pocket, can hold the complete works of Shakespeare, novels by Charles Dickens, or the Bible.

Now you can have King Lear in your carrying case, Pickwick Papers in your purse.

Now, I’m not a technology nerd. So my first reaction to learning about “ebooks,” as they’re called, was “This is surely the end of civilization as we know it.” So, just to be spiteful, I decided to try this ebook feature anddownloaded F. Scott Fitzgerald’s classic novel The Great Gatsby.

I quickly learned that my expectations were wrong: E-books are actually a wonderful tool for reading on the go. In fact, they remind me of a time when the words were more important than the printing. You see, what we call “writing” began as oral tradition, stories passed from generation to generation before the advent of written language. In Western culture, it wasn’t until the Greeks borrowed writing from the Phoenicians that stories were set down on papyrus, er, paper. The works of Homer, in fact, marked the transition from oral to written culture, but those early “books” emphasized the words themselves rather than the written medium.

Before the invention of the printing press, handwritten books were so rare that they took on a value of their own. The monks who created many of these early works labored so carefully that we call their works “illuminated manuscripts” because of the glorious artwork inked onto every page. Even today, when books are printed quickly and inexpensively, they hold a place of reverence.

But, in truth, we revere the ideas and language, not the books themselves. Reading Fitzgerald’s classic novel on a small, electronic screen, I was struck just as powerfully by his ideas and insights as I would have been if the words had been in ink. Just as Homer’s Odyssey transcended the scrolls on which it was written, great writing rises above the electronic format. It doesn’t matter whether the text is ink or ether; printed or digital; excellent writing makes for good reading.

Mark your time in your English Book with Today’s Date: _____ minutes _____ seconds.

Respond to Statements: Immediately answer the following statements to the best of your ability WITHOUT looking back at the reading. That’s cheating!

Complete the task in your English book.

Estimate the number of answers you believe are correct and put the number in the blank provided.

Without looking back at the reading passage, respond to the following statements by indicating whether the statement is True (T), False (F), or Not Discussed (N).

  1. ______ A PDA is a professional digital assistant.
  2. ______ A PDA can store addresses.
  3. ______ Only technology nerds enjoy reading e-books.
  4. ______ An e-book screen is easier to read if the original text is taken from a hardcover book.
  5. ______ The author tried reading fiction on his small electronic screen.
  6. ______ When books are printed in electronic form, the language loses some of its power.
  7. ______ Before the printing press, monks hand wrote books called illuminated manuscripts.
  8. ______ E-books are less expensive than printed ones.
  9. ______ Only classical fiction is available on e-books.
  10. ______ It’s not “books” we revere, rather the ideas and language.

Now, estimate how many of these answers you believe you have correct out of ten _____

5. Summary


This text is an extract from an advertisement for patrons to enjoy the Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro

Rio Olympics Travel Packages

Rio Olympics Travel Packages Synopsis
Aug 5th to 21st, the 2016 Summer Olympics will take place in the ‘Marvelous City’, Rio de Janeiro. On this tour, not only will you get to experience the wonders of a truly distinct, vibrant and geographically beautiful city but you will be there, live, during the Summer Olympics, one of the largest events in the world! Given the magnitude of this event, there will be a huge influx of people visiting the city simultaneously. Rio will be bustling. However, by leaving all the logistics to us, you can rest assured that everything will be taken care of and you can simply focus on enjoying your experience to the maximum! Remember that our Rio Olympics Travel Packages can be customized to fit your particular needs.

Rio de Janeiro Info

Situated between lush, Atlantic Rainforest-covered mountains and breathtaking beaches, the Cidade Maravilhosa (Marvelous City) has an allure like no other. Rio’s passion and zeal are instantly felt upon arrival as a result of the carioca* way of life, where every day seems like a celebration. While large-scale festivities such as Carnaval make Rio famous, there are countless occasions to enjoy all year long: Saturday at Ipanema Beach where some of the bikini-clad Brazilians bask in the tropical sun; a festa (party) in Lapa; football at Maracanã; or an impromptu roda de samba (samba circle) on the sidewalks of Leblon, Copacabana or Lagoa. The spectacular landscape is another of Rio’s virtues. Majestic peaks, golden beaches and deep blue sea offer a range of adventure. The Christ the Redeemer statue and Sugarloaf Mountain are just the beginning of Rio’s wonderful offerings; ride great surf breaks, trek through Tijuca’s rainforest, or hike up Morro Dois Irmaos (Two Brothers Hill) for one of the most impressive views of the city.

Rio Olympics Travel Packages Itinerary: Day by Day

Day 1: Aug 4th, 2016: Arrive in Rio de Janeiro
Start one of our many possible Rio Olympics Travel Packages at the Rio airport where our tour representative will be waiting for you to escort you to your accommodation by air-conditioned coach. Embrace the lively carioca lifestyle by going for a stroll along the boardwalk, relaxing on the beach, going shopping, and people-watching. For dinner, enjoy a delicious Brazilian barbecue at one of the most highly touted churrascarias in the city, included in your tour.

Day 2: Aug 5th, 2016: Rio de Janeiro City Tour
After a fresh Brazilian breakfast at the hotel, our English speaking guide will pick you up by air-conditioned coach for a half-day tour of Rio de Janeiro. First head up to Sugarloaf Mountain, a granite peak that towers over Guanabara Bay and is right in the midst of the city. Take the cable car ride to the top of Urca Mountain. The views of the city, the ocean, the islands in the bay, and the jungle-covered peaks are truly amazing. Then ascend the most famous peak in Rio de Janeiro, Corcovado Mountain where the iconic Christ the Redeemer statue sits on top, gazing with outstretched arms over Rio. Enjoy panoramic views of the city’s incredible natural terrain as well as close-ups of the statue. Go back to the hotel to freshen up, get a bite to eat then and transfer by private coach to the 2016 Summer Olympics Opening Ceremony in Maracanã stadium. Our tour representative will be waiting for you at the designated pick up location to take you back to your hotel afterwards.
*carioca: a native inhabitant of the city of Rio de Janeiro

Summary Writing

  1. Firstly, summary writing is based on material that has already been written. The summary writer must decide what to include, what to eliminate, how to reword or reorganise information, and how to ensure that the summary is true to the original meaning.
  2. Two types of thinking are crucial to summarising. The first is a selection process: judgments made about what text information should be included or rejected. The second is a reduction process: ideas must be condensed by substituting general ideas for lower level and more detailed ones.
  3. Summary writing is about finding what is important in a text. The aim firstly is to work out to whom is the information important? The key is to acknowledge what is important to the author. This means that you need to look for the things that the author seems to be emphasising. Clues on this is to look at the following: introductory sentences, topic sentences, summary statements, underlinings, italics, pointer phrases, repetitions etc. See if you can spot these, and jot them down underneath your writing.
  4. Sometimes two summaries are better than one. It can be easier to get things clear in your mind first, before trying to write a summary for someone else. The skill of summary writing is key to a number of industries, particularly law, commerce, health and media. You should make sure you understand the text before trying to summarise it for others. The best idea is to make your own notes and then write the summary.


Ko te reo te tuakiri | Language is my identity.  
Ko te reo tōku ahurei | Language is my uniqueness.
Ko te reo te ora. | Language is life.            


AS English Language Copyright © 2020 by christopherreed. All Rights Reserved.

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