AS Language Programme
|Word of the week: adulation– showing excessive praise||Quote of the week: ‘Every artist was first an amateur.’ – Ralph Waldo Emerson|
|Te reo Word of the week: karere – message||Fact of the week: Possums have one of the shortest pregnancies at just 16 days|
|Lesson Aims: to focus on spelling in own writing and using the skill of speed reading.||Success Criteria: to be cognisant of one (or more) area(s) requiring improvement and consciously be addressing these systematically.|
|Keywords: Genre, Register||Homework: To have all work written up in notes and exercise books|
Write out the following paragraph (in full) highlighting the edits that you make. For example, if you have changed a lower case letter to a capital letter, highlight that capital letter.
- You are to write out the spelling words below into your English Language notes in preparation for a quiz on Friday. You may wish to add them to your ongoing work so as to keep a running record of words that can be used as a vocab expansion, or in a separate file / book.
- You will be tested on these throughout the year at various intervals. For example week 8 test will consist of all words studied thus far.
- You will need to find dictionary definitions for all of the below words, and hand write them into your AS Language book. NB: Mostly the google definition (eg typing in ‘necessary definition’) can be wonderful, but not always.
- For each word you will also need to put it into a sentence. That sentence must be grammatically correct and contain the word, as it is written below (ie no derivations) and should demonstrate that you understand what that word means. For example ‘I told Louise it was not necessary for her to come along, I knew she had other things to do.’
How to remember spelling words?
- Have the words on one page, and your practice on a separate page. Look at the word quickly and then cover it, then try to write it out – then check.
- Try to remember the words in order.
- Think up a little rhyme or tune (if you are that way inclined) to remember spelling. One of the main ones I use is the spelling of onomatopoeia where each letter fits with the tune ‘Old Mac Donald’.
- Try to use the word more in your day to day.
- Test yourself on the Monday (when you first get it), Tuesday, and then Thursday. Science says that gap on Wednesday will provide the most help.
Pronouns are words that are used in place of nouns, or pronouns are noun substitutes.
Antecedent of the pronoun is the noun to which a pronoun refers. A pronoun must agree with its antecedent in gender, person and number.
Five kinds of Pronoun
- Personal pronoun can refer to the person speaking, the person being spoken to, or the person or thing spoken of.
All the personal pronouns, with the exception of the pronoun it, refer to persons. Be careful with personal pronouns and learn how to use their various forms. They can be most troublesome if you are not aware of their proper use.
|Number||Person||Nominative||Objective Case||Possessive Case|
|Singular||1st Person||I||me||my, mine|
|2nd Person||you||you||your, yours|
|3rd Person||he, she, it||him, her, it||his, her, hers|
|Plural||1st Person||we||us||our, ours|
|2ns Person||you||you||your, yours|
|3rd Person||they||them||their, theirs|
B. Second person– personal pronouns referring to the person spoken to:
Singular and Plural are similar: you, your, yours
C. Third person– personal pronouns referring to the persons or things spoken of:
Compound personal pronouns are sometimes called personal pronouns. When the word “self” or “selves” are added to certain forms of the personal pronoun
* Which province do you prefer to visit?
* What are your plans for the weekend?
3. Demonstrative pronouns point out specific persons, places, or things.
This– points out near object (singular0
These– points out near objects (plural)
That– points out far object (singular)
Those– points out far objects (plural)
The pronouns this (singular) and these (plural) are used to refer to the person or thing present, nearby, or just mentioned.
On the other hand, you see that and those to refer to the person or thing farther removed or less obvious.
4. Indefinite pronouns do not point out particular persons, places, or things.
|Singular||Plural||Singular or Plural|
5. Relative pronouns connect groups of words to another idea in the same sentence.
That, which, who, whom, and whose are relative pronouns.
Who is used when the antecedent is a person.
That is used to refer to either persons or things.
3. Speed Writing
Task: In your English book you need to write out the following sentence as quickly as you can in one minute. The aim of this exercise is to write as fast as you can, but also as legibly as you can. It doesn’t have to be your neatest writing, but it should be close.
|By Jove, my quick study of lexicography won a prize.|
Make a note of your speed, and rate your legibility out of 5. We will continue to develop this over the term.
4. Speed Reading
Task: In this exercise you just need to read at a normal pace. By normal I mean that you should be able to answer some questions following (on the next page). It is vital that you time yourself honestly.
By John D. Whitman
One of the most moving and emotional aspects of sporting events is the chance for an athlete to become, for a moment, superhuman.
That comment doesn’t refer to weight lifters hefting never-before-achieved weights, or high jumpers clearing bars at new heights. Some of sports’ greatest moments happen regardless of the number of goals or the speed of the winner. They happen when one player meets an impossible challenge.
These moments are so incredible, so perfect, that if they were written into fictional stories no one would believe them.
One of the greatest of these athletes is Michael Jordan, the former star of basketball’s Chicago Bulls. Jordan’s career is one long list of high scores, heroic moments, and highlight films. He led his team to six championships in the 1990s.
Fans and announcers alike speculated that 1998 would be Jordan’s last season. That year, Jordan carried the Bulls to yet another championship series. They faced the Utah Jazz, a team that had beaten them during all regular season games.
Following Jordan’s lead, the Bulls took control of the first few games of the series. Although they led the series 3-2 at the start of Game 6, momentum shifted to the Jazz, thanks to their All-Star power forward Karl Malone.
But the Bulls had Jordan, and he did not like to lose. In the final moments of a career full of magical moments, he proceeded to orchestrate a series of moves that would epitomize all his achievements.
He scored a lay-up with 37 seconds left that cut the lead to 86-85.
Then, as Malone tried to take position near the basket, Jordan snuck around him and stole the ball. Dribbling downcourt, the superstar hesitated for a moment as guard Bryon Russell blocked him. Jordan leaned to his left, then turned back to his right, faking Russell almost onto his hands and knees.
Open for a split second, Jordan shot the ball with 5.2 seconds left. The ball hit nothing but the bottom of the net as it sailed through the basket, placing the Bulls into the lead. The Bulls won the game, and took their sixth championship.
It seemed like too much to ask: a great player at the end of a great career, summoning all his skills for one final moment of superhuman effort.
But the sports world expects greatness from athletes, and Michael Jordan literally rose to the occasion.
Mark your time in your English Book with Today’s Date: _____ minutes _____ seconds.
Respond to Statements: Immediately answer the following statements to the best of your ability WITHOUT looking back at the reading. That’s cheating!
Complete the task in your English book.
Estimate the number of answers you believe are correct and put the number in the blank provided.
Without looking back at the reading passage, respond to the following statements by indicating whether the statement is True (T), False (F), or Not Discussed (N).
- ______ Some of the greatest moments in sports happen when an athlete meets a seemingly impossible challenge..
- ______ Michael Jordan played for the Detroit Bulls.
- ______ Before joining the Bulls, Michael Jordan played for the Utah Jazz.
- ______ Michael Jordan led his team to four team championships.
- ______ Despite Michael Jordan’s strong playing, the Bulls lost the first few games of the 1998 championship series.
- ______ Michael Jordan retired because he wanted to spend more time with his family.
- ______ In the last championship game, Bryon Russell fouled out as Jordan dribbled down the court.
- ______ Michael Jordan is considered a super-athlete because he also plays professional baseball.
- ______ Despite playing on opposing teams, Karl Malone and Michael Jordan are good friends.
- ______ Michael Jordan put superhuman effort into the final moments of the last game of his career.
Now, estimate how many of these answers you believe you have correct out of ten _____.
How did you compare with last week?
In a short paragraph of not more than 100 words, sum up the present situation of Scottish rescue archaeology and the action that has been suggested.
Rescue archaeology in Scotland
Scottish history is being lost irretrievably and at a critical rate beneath the earthmovers and cement beds of redevelopment. That fact has emerged from meetings at Perth and St Andrews during the past few days called by Rescue, the Trust for British Archaeology.
More than seventy historic Scottish towns are thought by archaeologists to be threatened with Perth and St Andrews principal among them. In the countryside thousands of sites, from the earliest prehistoric middens to the remains of the last century, lie unexplored.
Before the seventeenth century, they explained, documentary evidence about Scottish communities was sparse. The country did not have the same conscientious habit as medieval England of recording its history.
Dr Nicholas Brooks, of St Andrews University, declared: ‘The first five centuries of Scottish town history relies almost entirely on archaeological work to show the pattern of trade, defences, the type of housing and churches, the social habits and the health of the people living there. It is archaeology that tells us how they lived, what they ate and how they died.’
Last year only five towns of 77 needing investigation had rescue work carried out on them and a mere £25,000 of the £1m British budget for rescue archaeology was spent in Scotland. In relation to size and population the country has a far higher proportion of ancient monuments under state guardianship than England but the trained archaeological officers able to organize rescue operations ahead of the bulldozer number barely a handful.
The council of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland has recommended that 20 such officers should work on the new regional authorities to assess sites and provide the liaison between developers and local authorities. That would also provide better career prospects for trained archaeologists in Scotland.
In St Andrews, where little has changed during the past 300 years, archaeologists detect sinister signs. ‘The town centre is a conservation area and St Andrews has its own planning authority, but it is calculated that in the past decade one tenth of the medieval borough has been destroyed by piecemeal development. All hope of recovering information has been lost’, Dr Brooks says.
The difficulty lies in the ruthless strength of modern machines used to plough up or clear the ground, to drive in the supporting piles or peel back an opencast coalmine. The Society of Antiquaries complains that much has already gone.
Road metal is being quarried from one of the largest and most important native hill forts in Britain at Traprain Law, East Lothian. One of the best-preserved Roman marching camps in Scotland was recently ploughed up.
Scotland has about 75,000 known field monuments. About three quarters of them are unprotected. ‘As long as change was fairly leisurely, Scotland’s archaeology was reasonably secure. That is no longer so and an alarm must be sounded.’
- Firstly, summary writing is based on material that has already been written. The summary writer must decide what to include, what to eliminate, how to reword or reorganise information, and how to ensure that the summary is true to the original meaning.
- Two types of thinking are crucial to summarising. The first is a selection process: judgments made about what text information should be included or rejected. The second is a reduction process: ideas must be condensed by substituting general ideas for lower level and more detailed ones.
- Summary writing is about finding what is important in a text. The aim firstly is to work out to whom is the information important? The key is to acknowledge what is important to the author. This means that you need to look for the things that the author seems to be emphasising. Clues on this is to look at the following: introductory sentences, topic sentences, summary statements, underlinings, italics, pointer phrases, repetitions etc. See if you can spot these, and jot them down underneath your writing.
- Sometimes two summaries are better than one. It can be easier to get things clear in your mind first, before trying to write a summary for someone else. The skill of summary writing is key to a number of industries, particularly law, commerce, health and media. You should make sure you understand the text before trying to summarise it for others. The best idea is to make your own notes and then write the summary.
Ko te reo te tuakiri | Language is my identity.
Ko te reo tōku ahurei | Language is my uniqueness.
Ko te reo te ora. | Language is life.