AS Language Programme
|Word of the week: circumvent – find a way around an obstacle||Quote of the week: ‘Do not seek to follow in the footsteps of the wise. Seek what they sought.’ – Matsuo Basho|
|Te reo Word of the week: kaimahi – worker||Fact of the week: Wearing headphones for just an hour will increase the bacteria in your ear by 700 times.|
|Lesson Aims: to reflect on current status of reading, writing and comprehension||Success Criteria: to be cognisant of one (or more) area(s) requiring improvement and consciously be addressing these systematically.|
|Keywords: Audience, Purpose||Homework: To have all work written up in notes and exercise books|
Write out the following paragraph (in full) highlighting the edits that you make. For example, if you have changed a lower case letter to a capital letter, highlight that capital letter.
- You are to write out the spelling words below into your English Language notes in preparation for a quiz on Friday. You may wish to add them to your ongoing work so as to keep a running record of words that can be used as a vocab expansion, or in a separate file / book.
- You will be tested on these throughout the year at various intervals. For example week 8 test will consist of all words studied thus far.
- You will need to find dictionary definitions for all of the below words, and hand write them into your AS Language book. NB: Mostly the google definition (eg typing in ‘necessary definition’) can be wonderful, but not always.
- For each word you will also need to put it into a sentence. That sentence must be grammatically correct and contain the word, as it is written below (ie no derivations) and should demonstrate that you understand what that word means. For example ‘I told Louise it was not necessary for her to come along, I knew she had other things to do.’
How to remember spelling words?
Your brain is a muscle and like any muscle it works by pushing it and making it hurt a bit. Then having a rest. There is a whole field of science that is working on how we learn things, and while it is still a bit of a mystery there are some fundamentals that we can work on.
Firstly, reading over the list isn’t going to help you very much. In the same way that reading over your notes before an exam doesn’t help you very much. You aren’t making your brain work. Let’s relate it to doing push ups. The pain from push ups comes from the fibres in the muscles in your arms actually breaking. Dr Andre Jowett says “What we know about muscle adaption to [physical] loads is that when you put it under load or under stress, you actually cause microscopic injury to the muscle. That injury stimulates muscle healing and hopefully replication of muscle fibres and ultimately strengthening.” So it is the breaking down of the muscle, and the rebuilding of that muscle that strengthens it.
It’s the same with learning. You have to make your brain work and feel some discomfort. Like the feeling you get after an exam when you are a bit wiped out. You can make your brain work by forcing it to remember something, rather than reading it. This is the basis of flashcards. It’s also why working with others is effective. Testing and retesting is a really strong contender for the best learning – particularly of things that need to be rote learned (rote learning means you just remember it – like the alphabet).
- Have the words on one page, and your practice on a separate page. Look at the word quickly and then cover it, then try to write it out – then check.
- Try to remember the words in order.
- Think up a little rhyme or tune (if you are that way inclined) to remember spelling. One of the main ones I use is the spelling of onomatopoeia where each letter fits with the tune ‘Old Mac Donald’.
- Try to use the word more in your day to day.
- Test yourself on the Monday (when you first get it), Tuesday, and then Thursday. Science says that gap on Wednesday will provide the most help.
Parts of Speech
Part of Speech in English Language, words can be considered as the smallest elements that have distinctive meaning. Based on their use and functions, words are categorized
into several types or parts of speech. Noun, Pronoun, Verb, Adverb, Conjunction, Preposition, and Interjection.
A Noun tells you what you are talking about.
Nouns are names of persons, places, events, things, measures of times, action, quality and ideas.
eg. dog, boy, Philippines, Christmas, friend, freedom, dentist etc etc
Different Kinds of Nouns
1. Proper Nouns are specific and are written in capital letter. It refers to a particular person, place or thing.
2. Common Nouns are general, refer to a class of people, places and things. Opposite of proper noun.
3. Collective Nouns refer to nouns that are made up, not by single word, but by a group of words, persons, animals or things.
4. Concrete Nouns exist in the physical word.
5. Abstract Nouns refer to ideas and feelings.
Cases of Nouns
A. Nominative– if the noun is used as the subject, noun of address, predicate noun or
* Jennilyn looks pretty in her red dress.
* Maika, come and get your toys.
* The winner in the oratorical contest is Jolina
* Dr. Lucena, our new professor, discusses the lesson well.
B. Objective– if the noun is used as direct object, indirect object or object of preposition.
* The students are playing volleyball.
* Leonardo sent Martha a love letter.
* The concert was held in the park.
C. Possessive shows possession or ownership.
Rules for possession
- Singular nouns add apostrophe and s (‘s) for singular possessive, plural noun add apostrophe alone. eg. Michael’s, student’s, boy’s
- Those nouns that do not end with s, add’s to the plural forms. eg. Women’s, deer’s
- Of phrase is placed after a noun. eg. The daughter of the president.
Things, places and concepts are often followed by ‘of’ phrase to indicate association, measure or person. eg. A box of candy, A cup of sugar, The city of Wellington
Certain possessive forms of noun denote time, distance, measure and value. eg. A day’s work, A week’s wage, An hour’s rest
3. Speed Writing
Task: In your English book you need to write out the following sentence as quickly as you can in one minute. The aim of this exercise is to write as fast as you can, but also as legibly as you can. It doesn’t have to be your neatest writing, but it should be close.
|A wizard’s job is to vex chumps quickly in fog.|
Make a note of your speed, and rate your legibility out of 5. We will continue to develop this over the term.
4. Speed Reading
Task: In this exercise you just need to read at a normal pace. By normal I mean that you should be able to answer some questions following (on the next page). It is vital that you time yourself honestly.
By John D. Whitman
Worrying is good. Worrying to a degree is even healthy. From an evolutionary point of view, it’s probably the human ability to worry that got us where we are today. Since early human beings were generally unable to outrun or outfight larger, faster, sharper-clawed animals, our ability to anticipate danger played a role in our survival as a species.
Unfortunately, while times have changed, our instincts haven’t. The majority of humans have far fewer immediate physical threats or concerns than their ancestors (how many of you are, at this moment, worried about being eaten by a cave bear?). But according to several studies, the worry level of average Americans is increasing. At its most intense, this type of chronic worrying qualifies as an anxiety disorder.
Researchers identify this syndrome as GAD, or general anxiety disorder. Studies suggest that GAD afflicts about one in twenty adults during some point in their lives. Why are some people prone to anxiety while the rest of us cruise along humming “Don’t worry, be happy”? Scientists point to many factors.
Apparently, some of us are born worriers. Researchers at the Medical College of Virginia estimate that the tendency to worry can be genetically inherited. Those who aren’t born worriers can develop the tendency during childhood, either by an unsettling event or the demands of overprotective parents who give their children the impression that everything is worth worrying about.
A related factor is an early assignment of responsibility. In one study, almost two thirds of GAD sufferers stated that as children they were given adult responsibilities, such as caring for younger siblings. They learned that in order to receive love they had to watch out for every real or imagined threat.
The upshot of GAD is that worrying becomes a self-fulfilling prophesy. As the brain worries more, it loses the ability to distinguish real problems from non-problems.
How to break the worry cycle? Therapists help worriers develop methods to identify moments when they worry. For example, one patient wore a rubber band on her wrist and snapped it every time she found herself worrying. Raising sufferers’ self-awareness of their mental attitudes helps them distinguish between when they worry about real problems, and when they are simply worrying for worry’s sake.
No therapist will tell you that curing worrywarts is a snap, but such effective therapies give us hope that GAD isn’t something we have to worry about.
Mark your time in your English Book with Today’s Date: _____ minutes _____ seconds.
Respond to Statements: Immediately answer the following statements to the best of your ability WITHOUT looking back at the reading. That’s cheating!
Complete the task in your English book.
Estimate the number of answers you believe are correct and put the number in the blank provided.
Without looking back at the reading passage, respond to the following statements by indicating whether the statement is True (T), False (F), or Not Discussed (N).
- ______ GAD stands for genetic anxiety disease.
- ______ Studies suggest about one in twenty people are affected by GAD sometime in their lives.
- ______ Worrying is a human instinct dating as far back as the caveman days.
- ______ More women than men worry.
- ______ Worriers are never born that way.
- ______ The tendency to worry can develop as a result of giving a child adult responsibilities at an early age.
- ______ The more a person worries, the less the brain can distinguish non-problems from real problems.
- ______ More and more people are choosing to participate in anxiety research.
- ______ E-GAD is the term used for extreme worriers.
- ______ There are effective therapies for GAD sufferers.
Now, estimate how many of these answers you believe you have correct out of ten _____.
How did you compare with last week?
What Your Eyes Do When You Read
Find a partner who can help you with this quick exercise. Don’t be shy about asking but if no one is around, you can do it later. One of you will take on the role of the silent reader while the other will be the observer. The reader should face the observer. The reader needs to select anything to read. This book is just fine or grab something from your “read later” pile. The reader then lifts the material up to just below eye height, so the observer can see the reader’s eyeballs. The reader then reads silently for about thirty seconds while the observer watches the reader’s eye movements. When you’re done, switch roles with your partner.
What might you see? A process similar to a typewriter. You see small jerky movements going across a line and you might imagine a quiet “ding” — as typewriters used to do before computers — when the reader reaches the end of the line before going on to the beginning of the next line. What you really see is the eyes stopping and jumping. Your eyes stop and jump on average every quarter of a second, or four times per second. You read, or pick up information, only when you stop. Each jump takes you from one stop to the next. And what your eyes see in one eye stop is your eye span. Remember the narrow vs. wide eye span discussed earlier? If you want to learn how to read faster, you need to see more each time your eyes stop, widening your eye span.
What’s On The Side Of Your Road?
You can widen your eye span and therefore read faster because of peripheral vision. This is your visual boundary or what you can see on the left and right while looking straight ahead. Though the outer area of your boundary is blurry, the inner part — the part you see when you stare directly ahead — is focused.
There are two quick ways to assess your peripheral vision ability. Both methods require your eyes and your hands.
- Method 1: Finding your peripheral vision breaking point. Stare at something directly in front of you. Raise your arms straight out in front of you at shoulder height and point your fingertips toward the ceiling. Slowly move your hands and arms apart to the sides without moving your head or your eyes. Your hands are not in focus but they are visible. When you are at the point where you no longer see your hands while staring straight ahead, since they are now too far out of your periphery, bring them back in just enough to where you can see them again. Now, look at how far apart your hands are. This is your peripheral vision ability.
- Method 2: Discovering your eye span. Choose a letter in the center of a line of text and place a finger on the left and right of it. Stare directly at the letter without moving your eyes or head. Slowly move your fingers apart, exposing more letters and words. Look at how much you see while still focusing on the letter. This is your present eye span ability. With practice, you can widen your eye span.
The Eye Span Pyramid
Focus carefully on the number at the center of each line. Start with the top number and slowly jump your eyes to stop on the next number down. By focusing hard you will see the numbers or syllables at both ends simultaneously. It will be more challenging as you go down. Come back to this from time to time to gauge your peripheral vision ability.
4 1 6
26 2 57
44 3 60
38 4 16
92 5 11
47 6 15
81 7 66
94 8 12
80 9 28
j 1 r
ad 2 bo
be 3 to
ko 4 gr
fit 5 mop
lo 6 is
fa 7 ti
fun 8 jan
it 9 tip
Try this out: The Green Dot Project is designed to really push your eye movement. Try reading the entire passage without taking your eyes off the green dot in the middle. Don’t be worried if you just can’t, keep practising!!
In a paragraph of not more than 100 words, sum up the changes that took place in music around 1966-7, according to the passage. Practice your speed reading when approaching this text.
|The new music
The new music was built out of materials already in existence: blues, rock’n’roll, folk music. But although the forms remained, something wholly new and original was made out of these older elements – more original, perhaps, than even the new musicians themselves yet realize. The transformation took place in 1966-7. Up to that time, the blues had been an essentially black medium. Rock’n’roll, a blues derivative, was rhythmic, raunchy, teen-age dance music. Folk music, old and modern, was popular among college students. The three forms remained musically and culturally distinct, and even as late as 1965, none of them were expressing any radically new states of consciousness. Blues expressed black soul; rock, as made famous by Elvis Presley, was the beat of youthful sensuality; and folk music, with such singers as Joan Baez, expressed anti-war sentiments as well as the universal themes of love and disillusionment.
In 1966-7 there was a spontaneous transformation. In the United States, it originated with youthful rock groups playing in San Francisco. In England, it was led by the Beatles, who were already established as an extremely fine and highly individual rock group. What happened, as well as it can be put into words, was this. First, the separate musical traditions were brought together. Bob Dylan and the Jefferson Airplane played folk rock, folk ideas with a rock beat. White rock groups began experimenting with the blues. Of course, white musicians had always played the blues, but essentially as imitators of the Negro style; now it began to be the white bands’ own music. And all of the groups moved towards a broader eclecticism and synthesis. They freely took over elements from Indian ragas, from jazz, from American country music, and as time went on from even more diverse sources (one group seems recently to have been trying out Gregorian chants). What developed was a protean music, capable fan almost limitless range of expression.
The second thing that happened was that all the musical groups began using the full range of electric instruments and the technology of electronic amplifiers. The twangy electric guitar was an old country-western standby, but the new electronic effects were altogether different – so different that a new listener in 1967 might well feel that there had never been any sounds like that in the world before. The high, piercing, unearthly sounds of the guitar seemed to come from other realms. Electronics did, in fact, make possible sounds that no instrument up to that time could produce. And in studio recordings, multiple tracking, feedback and other devices made possible effects that not even an electronic band could produce live. Electronic amplification also made possible a fantastic increase in volume, the music becoming as loud and penetrating as the human ear could stand, and thereby achieving a ‘total’ effect, so that instead fan audience of passive listeners, there were now audiences of total participants, feeling the music in all of their senses and all of their bones.
Third, the music becomes a multi-media experience; a part of a total environment. In the Bay Area ballrooms, the Fillmore, the Avalon, or Pauley Ballroom at the University of California, the walls were covered with fantastic changing patterns of light, the beginning of the new art of the light show. And the audience did not sit, it danced. With records at home, listeners imitated these lighting effects as best they could, and heightened the whole experience by using drugs. Often music was played out of doors, where nature – the sea or tall redwoods – provided the environment.
- Firstly, summary writing is based on material that has already been written. The summary writer must decide what to include, what to eliminate, how to reword or reorganise information, and how to ensure that the summary is true to the original meaning.
- Two types of thinking are crucial to summarising. The first is a selection process: judgments made about what text information should be included or rejected. The second is a reduction process: ideas must be condensed by substituting general ideas for lower level and more detailed ones.
- Summary writing is about finding what is important in a text. The aim firstly is to work out to whom is the information important? The key is to acknowledge what is important to the author. This means that you need to look for the things that the author seems to be emphasising. Clues on this is to look at the following: introductory sentences, topic sentences, summary statements, underlinings, italics, pointer phrases, repetitions etc. See if you can spot these, and jot them down underneath your writing.
- Sometimes two summaries are better than one. It can be easier to get things clear in your mind first, before trying to write a summary for someone else. The skill of summary writing is key to a number of industries, particularly law, commerce, health and media. You should make sure you understand the text before trying to summarise it for others. The best idea is to make your own notes and then write the summary.
Ko te reo te tuakiri | Language is my identity.
Ko te reo tōku ahurei | Language is my uniqueness.
Ko te reo te ora. | Language is life.