AS Language Programme
|Word of the week: amok– in a violently raging, wild, or uncontrolled manner||Quote of the week: “You have brains in your head. You have feet in your shoes. You can steer yourself any direction you choose.” –Dr. Seuss|
|Te Wiki o Te Reo Māori: kete– basket||Fact of the week:Cleopatra had a special lipstick made for her, consisting of a crushed mixture of ants and deep red carmine beetles.|
|Lesson Aims: to add to the ability of editing and functional skills for English mastery.||Success Criteria: to recognise the expectations of the AS language paper|
|Keywords: Content and Context||Homework: To have all work written up in notes and exercise books|
Write out the following paragraph (in full) highlighting the edits that you make. For example, if you have changed a lower case letter to a capital letter, highlight that capital letter.
The university library 1) open every day. Students go to the library early in the morning and 2) late at night some students 3) work in the library all night! The lights are always on. There is a coffee shop 4) near to library. You can’t take coffee 5) go into the library, but you can 6) take books into the coffee shop. The library workers 7) always very busy. The students are always 8) studying. The library and the coffee shop are busy places!
A. open up
B. is open
C. is open up
D. is opens
A. late at night. Some
B. late in night. Some
C. late in night. some
D. late night some
A. work in library
B. work at library
C. work during library
D. Correct as is
A. by the library
B. by to the library
C. near the library
D. Both A and C are correct
A. for go into the library,
B. go into the library,
C. into the library,
D. into library,
A. taking the books
B. taking books
C. take book
D. Correct as is
A. are always very busy
B. are very always busy
C. were always very busy
D. always very are busy
D. Correct as is
- You are to write out the spelling words below into your English Language notes in preparation for a quiz on Friday. You may wish to add them to your ongoing work so as to keep a running record of words that can be used as a vocab expansion, or in a separate file / book.
- You will be tested on these throughout the year at various intervals. For example week 8 test will consist of all words studied thus far.
- You will need to find dictionary definitions for all of the below words, and hand write them into your AS Language book. NB: Mostly the google definition (eg typing in ‘necessary definition’) can be wonderful, but not always.
- For each word you will also need to put it into a sentence. That sentence must be grammatically correct and contain the word, as it is written below (ie no derivations) and should demonstrate that you understand what that word means. For example ‘I told Louise it was not necessary for her to come along, I knew she had other things to do.’
How to remember spelling words?
- Have the words on one page, and your practice on a separate page. Look at the word quickly and then cover it, then try to write it out – then check.
- Try to remember the words in order.
- Think up a little rhyme or tune (if you are that way inclined) to remember spelling. One of the main ones I use is the spelling of onomatopoeia where each letter fits with the tune ‘Old Mac Donald’.
- Try to use the word more in your day to day.
- Test yourself on the Monday (when you first get it), Tuesday, and then Thursday. Science says that gap on Wednesday will provide the most help.
Active and Passive Voice
Voice is a grammatical term that is used to tell whether the subject of the sentence is acting or is receiving the action expressed by the verb.
Active voice is to be when the subject is the doer of the action.
* Chan jumped over the obstacle.
* Jelly played the guitar.
* Allen sang 10 songs.
A verb is in the passive voice when the subject does not perform the action; in the other words, the subject is passive.
* The house painted by Larry.
The Active voice is the (generally considered) better form to use. It is advisable to not use the passive voice either in speaking or writing when the active voice would be more natural or more direct. However, sometimes there are instances where this is actually more beneficial for the reader.
Passive voice: The play was written by Shakespeare.
The telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell.
Active voice: Shakespeare wrote the play.
Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone.
Passive voice can be used when what was done is more important than the doer of the action.
Moods of Verbs
Mood shows the speaker’s attitude in relation to the happening, When we apply the term of mood to verbs, we mean the manner in which the verb expresses the action or state of being.
A. The indicative mood expresses fact or asks a question. It is commonly used on our daily conversation.
The student typed the letter. (Fact)
Where shall we take our vacation this summer? (Question)
B. The imperative mood expresses a command or a request. It is always used in the present tense.
Please bring my umbrella to the office. (Request)
Go away! (Command)
C. The subjunctive mood is used to express a wish or a command. Its forms are like the indicative mood with the only difference in the third person singular of the present tense
where the ‘s’ ending of the verb is omitted.
Indicative: He talks loud.
Subjunctive: He insists that he talk loud.
For all persons, the subjunctive form of the verb to be is be:
* That I be good is my father’s wish.
* That you be silent is the teacher’s command.
* That she be good is what I’m praying for.
The past subjunctive form of the verb to be is “were”. In statements contrary to fact and statements expressing doubt, this form is used.
* If I were a Queen, I would travel a lot.
The modals of English are auxiliary verbs. They express particular meanings.
Can – Could
1. Can has two tenses- the present tense can and the past tense could.
2. Can may mean.
* I can sing well.
* Eunice can play the whole day.
* Anyone can lose much money in gambling.
* You can go to the doctor now.
3. since can has only two tenses, the expression “to be able to” is used as a substitute for all tenses.
4. Could is used in the same was as can although could may be used in all negative sentences in the past.
A. “Could” may be used in positive sentences in the past only when ability is general or over a period of time is indicated.
Luzviminda could speak Spanish when she was young.
Fredi could always climb the tallest tree when he was a small boy.
May – Might
1. May has only two tenses- the non-past tense may and the past tense might.
2. May is used to express.
* May I leave the room?
* You may go.
B. Doubt or possibility
* The bus may arrive late
* He may come but I doubt it.
* They are working on their research so that they may pass the subject.
* They are saving now so that they may finance the children’s education.
3. The past tense of “May” is might, it is used in the same way as may.
* He said that I might be late.
* It seems that the plane might be late.
4. May has a special past tense form, obtained by the use of the auxiliary verb have and the past participle of the main verb. This is used only to indicate possibility in the past.
* Lito may have gone to school or he may have gone home.
* Mady may have done the work.
1. Should and ought followed by an infinitive are used to express a mild form of duty or obligation.
2. Should and ought have the same meaning and can be used interchangeably.
3. Should is more common than ought.
* Students should study harder.
* You ought to study harder.
4. When the duty or obligation is in the past, should and ought are followed by a perfect infinitive, the modal have is used, followed by the past participle of the verb.
5. The force of should and ought in the past tense form is nearly negative, indicating that the duty or obligation was not fulfilled.
* You should have finished your book report.
* You ought to have done your assignment.
6. Should and ought are also used to express probability.
* Your investment should produce big interest.
* You ought to graduate next year.
Must- Have to
1. “Must” has only one form, the present tense.
2. Must is used to express the following:
A. Strong necessity or command
* You must attend your class.
* She must work today.
B. Strong probability
* This bag must be yours: it has your name on it.
* Yves is absent: she must be sick.
3. “Have to” is used to express necessity in all tenses followed by an infinitive.
* Justine and Kyle have to study tonight.
* She had to take the exam.
4. It is possible to form a negative sentence with to have by placing not after the verb.
* April has not anything to give.
* Dorothy hasn’t a dollar.
5. When to have is use together with an infinitive to express necessity, the tense caries do, does, and did. They are uses to form all negatives and questions.
* You do not have to do it.
* Do I have to do it?
3. Speed Writing
Task: In your English book you need to write out the following sentence as quickly as you can in one minute. The aim of this exercise is to write as fast as you can, but also as legibly as you can. It doesn’t have to be your neatest writing, but it should be close.
|Back in June we delivered oxygen equipment of the same size.|
Make a note of your speed, and rate your legibility out of 5. We will continue to develop this over the term.
4. Speed Reading
‘You can’t be serious,’ Henry Clough told his assistant James Wright.
‘It’s true,’ James affirmed.
‘But a tanker. You can’t lose a tanker. Not one with all the latest nautical
technology at its disposal,’ Henry protested.
‘You wouldn’t think so,’ agreed James, ‘but it’s gone. Last reported in the
Atlantic at 2330 last night. Since then, nothing. No reports. No Mayday. Nothing.
We’ve contacted all vessels known to be in the area at the time and none of them
has any record of seeing it or having it on radar after 2330.’
Henry looked thoughtful for a few moments.
‘No storms, I suppose,’ he ventured.
‘No, the weather was pretty good. A large swell and strongish winds, but nothing
that would worry the Lady Lavinia. She was as you know one of our most
advanced vessels. Only been in service for two years. Only been in port and
checked over last month. It’s a complete mystery.’
‘We’d better tell the boss,’ concluded Henry.
They took the lift to the top floor and walked along the luxurious corridor to the
managing director’s suite. Fortunately, he was free and they were ushered in
straight away. They told their story to an increasingly incredulous Sebastian
There was a long silence when they had finished. Eventually, the big man spoke.
Treat this as suspicious and instigate a full search and rescue. It could just be
that she has for some reason suffered a total and catastrophic loss of all systems
and is drifting helplessly out there somewhere.’
Henry and James went back to Henry’s office and began the lengthy procedure
of initiating and co-ordinating the search.
At Mr Shorofski’s request, the media were not informed. He decided it was best
not to alarm families and friends of the crew unnecessarily. After all, the tanker
could reappear just as mysteriously as it had disappeared.
The search continued for several days without success, but on the Friday of
that week an RAF Nimrod thought it sighted what looked like a very large oil
slick off the coast of Ireland. If the oil came ashore it would be a bigger
environmental disaster than the Exxon Valdiz off the coast of Alaska some years
‘We really ought to issue some sort of statement,’ said Henry Clough anxiously.
‘No,’ said Shorofski firmly. ‘Not until the loss of the ship is confirmed. It may not
be our oil.’
‘But the authorities will need time to organise mopping up operations,’ protested
Clough. ‘If it emerges later that we knew about this slick, even if it isn’t ours, and
didn’t tell anyone, we’ll be crucified in the media. We could even face criminal
Shorofski was adamant. ‘The RAF spotted it – or thought they did – let them tell
people. There’s no reason at this stage for us to get involved. For goodness’
sake, we don’t even know yet for definite that there is an oil slick. You panic too
Henry Clough looked glumly out of the window. He knew from past experience
that there was no arguing with Sebastian Shorofski once he had made up his
mind. Nevertheless, he hardly slept that night and was not at all looking forward
to going into work the next day, but he had to have another try with Shorofski.
Mark your time in your English Book with Today’s Date: _____ minutes _____ seconds.
Respond to Statements: Immediately answer the following statements to the best of your ability WITHOUT looking back at the reading. That’s cheating!
Complete the task in your English book.
Estimate the number of answers you believe are correct and put the number in the blank provided.
Without looking back at the reading passage, respond to the following statements by indicating whether the statement is True (T), False (F), or Not Discussed (N).
- What was the name of Henry dough’s assistant?
- At what time was the last report received from the tanker?
- What was the name of the tanker.
- For how long had the tanker been in service?
- What was Sebastian Shorofski’s position in the company?
- What was his initial reaction to being told of the tanker’s disappearance?
- Off the coast of which country was the suspected oil slick sighted?
- What was the weather like when the tanker disappeared?
- When had the tanker last been in port?
- On which day of the week did the RAF Nimrod think it had spotted an oil slick?
Now, estimate how many of these answers you believe you have correct out of ten _____
According to the writer, what changes are taking place in the position of Received Pronunciation?
Most of us have an image of such a normal or standard English in pronunciation, and very commonly in Great Britain this is ‘Received Pronunciation’, often associated with the public schools, Oxford, and the BBC. Indeed, a pronunciation within this range has great prestige throughout the world, and for English taught as a foreign language it is more usually the ideal than any other pronunciation. At the same time, it must be remembered that, so far as the English-speaking countries are concerned, this ‘Received Pronunciation’ approaches the status of a ‘standard’ almost only in England: educated Scots, Irishmen, Americans, Australians, and others have their own, different images of a standard form of English.
Even in England it is difficult to speak oaf standard in pronunciation. For one thing, pronunciation is infinitely variable, so that even given the will to adopt a single pronunciation, it would be difficult to achieve. The word dance may be pronounced in a dozen ways even by people who do not think of themselves as dialect speakers: there is no sure way of any two people saying the same word with precisely the same sound. In this respect, pronunciation much more closely resembles handwriting than spelling. In spelling, there are absolute distinctions which can be learnt and imitated with complete precision: one can know at once whether a word is spelt in a ‘standard ’way or not. But two persons’ handwriting and pronunciation may both be perfectly intelligible, yet have obvious differences without our being able to say which is ‘better’ or more ‘standard.’
Moreover, while the easy and quick communications of modern times have mixed up and levelled dialectal distinctions to a great extent, and encouraged the spread of ‘neutral’, ‘normal’ pronunciation, the accompanying sociological changes have reduced the prestige of Received Pronunciation. When Mr Robert Graves returned to Oxford in October 1961 to take up the Professorship of Poetry, The Times reported him as saying, ‘Only the ordinary accent of the undergraduate has changed. In my day you very seldom heard anything but Oxford English; now there is a lot of north country and so on. In 1920 it was prophesied that the Oxford accent would overcome all others. But the regional speech proved stronger. A good thing.’
- Firstly, summary writing is based on material that has already been written. The summary writer must decide what to include, what to eliminate, how to reword or reorganise information, and how to ensure that the summary is true to the original meaning.
- Two types of thinking are crucial to summarising. The first is a selection process: judgments made about what text information should be included or rejected. The second is a reduction process: ideas must be condensed by substituting general ideas for lower level and more detailed ones.
- Summary writing is about finding what is important in a text. The aim firstly is to work out to whom is the information important? The key is to acknowledge what is important to the author. This means that you need to look for the things that the author seems to be emphasising. Clues on this is to look at the following: introductory sentences, topic sentences, summary statements, underlinings, italics, pointer phrases, repetitions etc. See if you can spot these, and jot them down underneath your writing.
- Sometimes two summaries are better than one. It can be easier to get things clear in your mind first, before trying to write a summary for someone else. The skill of summary writing is key to a number of industries, particularly law, commerce, health and media. You should make sure you understand the text before trying to summarise it for others. The best idea is to make your own notes and then write the summary.
Ko te reo te tuakiri | Language is my identity.
Ko te reo tōku ahurei | Language is my uniqueness.
Ko te reo te ora. | Language is life.